Popular support for revolutionary France surged in America. What had previously been a continental war had now become a worldwide maritime conflict. offered a detailed legal and historical argument against predatory British maritime practices and a defense of the neutral carrying trade. Calhoun has gone down in American history as the great theorist of state rights, with the associated doctrines of nullification and the concurrent majority, qualifying him as the intellectual grandfather of secession and the Confederacy.No author was listed but it soon became known that the Secretary of State, James Madison, was the responsible party. But in his early public career, Calhoun was a staunch nationalist, a supporter of the War of 1812, and one of the Republic’s most distinguished Secretaries of War.The new President, Benjamin Harrison, was a big-navy advocate and for the first time since 1875, the Republican Party enjoyed clear majorities in both Houses of Congress. : “That which I deplore, and which is a sober, just, and reasonable cause of deep national concern, is that the nation neither has nor cares to have its sea frontier so defended, and its navy of such power, as shall suffice, with the advantages of our position, to weigh seriously when inevitable discussions arise.” A prolific writer, Mahan became one of the most famous naval and sea power prophets of the late nineteenth century.Concerned with the United States’ place in the world, Mahan wrote to influence both policymakers and common Americans.
Paine effectively publicized the basic argument that Patriots like John Adams and Richard Henry Lee had been making privately in the Continental Congress – that the cause of the British North American colonies could be achieved only by declaring their independence from Great Britain, and not through continued attempts at reconciliation with the home country.
But from the very beginning, the outcome of the American Civil War could have been heavily influenced, if not outright changed, by the interference of the major European powers.
Abraham Lincoln knew very well what was at stake in diplomatic relations with other nations.
But even more famously associated with Polk is the Mexican-American War, and with it the acquisition of New Mexico and Upper California. “It is the President's opinion that steps should be taken at once to enable our enterprising merchants to supply the last link in that great chain which unites all nations of the world, by the early establishment of a line of steamers from California to China.” So begins a letter of instructions from Secretary of State Daniel Webster to Commodore John Aulick in June of 1851 on the subject of “opening” Japan to the outside world.
The advent of the 19 century Steam Age and the renewed interest of the Western World in Asia meant that no longer would the West mostly ignore Japan—now it was an island, a link, in the middle of that great chain of commerce that stretched from Europe to China to the Americas, and it was therefore crucial to the success of current and future commercial endeavors. In the pantheon of significant presidential statements of American foreign policy—such as Washington's Farewell Address, the Monroe Doctrine, Wilson's Fourteen Points, the Truman Doctrine, and the Reagan Doctrine—we lack an equivalent pronouncement by Abraham Lincoln.
Paine’s case for independence included, , the argument that the united colonies would be able to maintain their security in a hostile world – and also what proved to be enduring, and controversial, assertions about America’s place in that world. In April 1793, the United States was confronted with its most serious foreign policy crisis since the end of the American Revolution, when the Washington administration learned that the recently-constituted French Republic had declared war on England and the Dutch Republic.